Costa Rica is the most southern country of the five countries that complete Central America, from eight to eleven degrees north latitude, between eighty-three to eighty-six degrees west longitude. According to the latitudes mentioned, Costa Rica is located in the center of the inter-tropical zone at 10 ° north of Ecuador. This area is also known as the “hot zone”, due to warm temperatures prevailed.
The borders of Costa Rica are natural, conventional and diverse. In the east and northeast is limited by the Caribbean Sea, and in the west and south by the Pacific Ocean in the southeast borders the Republic of Panama and Nicaragua to the North, whose border is natural: Sapoa River, Riverside south of Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan river, but due to Cañas Jerez border decree signed in 1858, this border is defined as a line from the Caribbean Sea, just from the tip of Punta Castilla in the mouth of the river San Juan, the border continues along in a straight line upstream to a point three English miles from Fort Castillo Viejo, hence continuing westward, making a curve equidistant from a radius of three miles from the fort, and then continues two miles south of the right bank of the river, then continues two miles south of the shore of Lake Nicaragua before joining the River Sapoa. From this point on, the boundary follows a straight line to the center of Bahia Salinas.
Costa Rica borders Panama (which was a province of Colombia until 1903). This boundary was not well defined for many years, with Costa Rica claimed as part of its territory along the coast of Laguna de Chiriqui. Later, however, to end the dispute, Costa Rica and Colombia underwent dispute with the decision made by the French President Loubet, but he erroneously suggested a limit that failed to resolve the dispute. After Panama was established as a republic, the matter was referred to the President of the U.S. Supreme Court, Edward Douglas White, who presented his verdict on September 12, 1914. This verdict satisfied the Costa Ricans but was not satisfying enough for Panamanians.
In 1941, Panama and Costa Rica reached agreement through treaty boundary Echandi-Montero/Fernandez Jaen. Treaty signed on May 1, 1941. Then the legislative bodies of both countries approved the border as described: “Beginning in Sixaola river mouth in the Caribbean Sea, following upstream along the lower valley of the river to its emptying into the river Yorkin, from trip upriver along the lower river valley parallel in longitude 9 ° 30 ‘, north of Ecuador, then continues south 76 ° 3T, west to the meridian at longitude 82 ° 58’10 ” west of Greenwich, from there to its continuous along this meridian to the mountain range that separates the Caribbean waters of the Pacific waters, follows this ridge to Cerro Pano, where it meets the ridge dividing the waters of the tributaries Dulce Gulf and Bay Charco Azul, from there follow the ridge until the end of Punta Burica in the Pacific Ocean. “